What are the main components of a Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV system?

Solar PV Modules / Solar Panels -

The Solar PV modules / Solar Panels convert solar energy to DC (direct current) electrical energy. They are available in different technologies such as crystalline silicon, thin film silicon, CIGS, CdTe, HIT, etc. Crystalline Silicon Solar PV panels are most commonly used in solar rooftop system. Multiple panels are connected together to form arrays as per the desired capacity of the system.

Inverter -

Inverter converts variable DC output of Solar PV panels into AC power. Inverter also synchronizes with the grid so that generated power from the module can be injected into the grid.

Module Mounting Structure -

The module mounting structure, is the support structure that holds the Solar PV panels in place for full system life and is exposed to all weather conditions. These are normally fixed at particular angle and orientation in case of solar rooftop system. But these can also be of type that tracks the Sun, called as trackers

Bi-direction Meters -

Meters are used to record the generation or consumption of electricity. Bi-direction (or Net-Meters) are used to keep track of the electricity that solar PV system injects to utility grid and the electricity that is drawn from the utility grid.

Balance of System -

These consist of cables, switchboards, junction boxes, earthing system, circuit breaker, fuses, lightning protection system, etc.

How much area is required for a 1 kWp rooftop Solar PV system?
A 1 kW rooftop system generally requires 10 sq. metres of shadow-free area. However, actual area requirement may vary depending on the efficiency of solar module, and their placement etc.
What types of roofs are suitable for Rooftop solar (RTS) system?
Rooftop solar PV systems can be installed on any type of roof having sufficient load bearing capacity.
What is the daily energy generated from a 1 kWp Solar Power Plant?
On a clear sunny day, 1 kWp solar power plant can generate 4 to 5.5 units in a day
Will I get constant / same energy from the RTS all year round?
No, the daily energy generation from the RTS shall be dependent on the temperature and solar irradiance among other parameters and these may not be same every day.
What are the factors affecting generation?
Plant Location, Quality of equipment used, No. of sunshine hours, Workmanship, PV module tilt angle and orientation, Module Cleaning, O&M activities etc.
Will I get same annual energy from the RTS for all 25 years?
No. On exposure to sunlight and outside environment, the solar module lose their generation capacity and this is called degradation.
What are the O&M aspects of a grid-connected rooftop solar PV system?
Compared to most other power generating technologies, solar PV systems have very low maintenance and servicing requirements. However, suitable maintenance of a PV plant is essential to optimise energy yield and maximise the life of the system.

Some of the maintenance activities typically may include but not limited to the following:
Module cleaning is required periodically (dust, bird dropping and other debris can cause decrease in power generation). Periodicity depends on local conditions like dust, birds, air pollution, etc.

Other items should be checked periodically as stated below: Checking module connection integrity, Checking junction boxes / string combiner boxes, Inspecting mechanical integrity of mounting structures, Tightening cable connections that have loosened, Replacing blown fuses, Repairing lightning damage, Repairing equipment damaged by intruders or during module cleaning
What is net-metering?
All solar PV systems generate power only during daytime when sun is available. In net metered systems, the generated power is utilized for self-consumption, and excess power is exported to the grid as long as grid is available. In case, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc., power is drawn from the grid to power the loads. A bi-directional or net meter records the energy flow in both Installation of solar rooftop system
How can I apply for installation of solar rooftop system?
Residential consumers and Group Housing Society can apply for installation of solar rooftop system through the online portal of DISCOMs. The link for the online portal of DISCOMs is mentioned- /he directions and at the end of billing period net energy used is calculated. The beneficiary has to pay for only the net energy used.
What is the general procedure for installation of Rooftop Solar system for beneficiary?
The interested beneficiary may install the solar rooftop systems through project developers/system integrators/manufactures etc. after taking necessary approval from DISCOMs within the capacity limit as laid down in the order of respective State Electricity Regulatory Commission/Joint Electricity Regulatory Commission of the respective States/UTs.
Can I install Rooftop Solar system if I live in a rented house?
The RTS under any framework like net or gross metering can be installed by the electricity consumer. So, if you have electricity connection in your name and you pay regularly the electricity bill in your own name and also you have the permission of use the roof for solar rooftop installation from the owner, you can install the RTS.
What kind of system can be installed in Group Housing Society (GHS)?
With several common rooftops available in a society, there is a great potential for harnessing solar energy through rooftop PV systems. The energy generated from these systems is used to offset the common loads of the society (common lighting, lift, pumps, etc.). A Net Meter shall be provided against, the Single Point Delivery (SPD) common meter of Cooperative Group Housing Society (CGHS). In this, the society ultimately gets benefitted in terms of reduced monthly electricity expenses.
If I shift my residence or office where RTS is installed, what will happen to the RTS?
The system is easy to be dismantled and reassembled elsewhere. So, it can be shifted to your new residence.